Reference Lists

If you're new to eDNA, check out the lists below of introductory and foundational references.  For the most up-to-date reference lists, the Mendeley "Environmental DNA" group allows you to download references and manage them for your own writing. At the bottom of this page is a current list of references, updated every month or so.

Mendeley References

An updated list of papers and published protocols is maintained on Mendeley, a free online and desktop reference manager. To access the list, create a free account at mendeley.com.

  1. Once you’ve logged in, go to the Groups tab on the top of the page and search for “Environmental DNA.”

  2. Select the “Environmental DNA” group.

  3. Use the Papers tab to view the shared references in the group.

  4. Click on any paper in the list to see its citation information, abstract, and link to the journal’s website.

If you follow the group, you can save the references to your own library and access the list from the Mendeley desktop program. Mendeley Desktop is also free and links directly to your Mendeley web account.


Short List of Introductory eDNA References

Barnes, M. A., and C. R. Turner. 2015. The ecology of environmental DNA and implications for conservation genetics. Conservation Genetics.

Bohmann, K., A. Evans, M. T. P. Gilbert, G. R. Carvalho, S. Creer, M. Knapp, D. W. Yu, and M. de Bruyn. 2014. Environmental DNA for wildlife biology and biodiversity monitoring. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29:358–367.

Deiner, K., Bik, H. M., Mächler, E., Seymour, M., Lacoursière-Roussel, A., Altermatt, F., Creer, S., Bista, I., Lodge, D. M., de Vere, N., Pfrender, M. E. and Bernatchez, L. 2017. Environmental DNA metabarcoding: transforming how we survey animal and plant communities. Mol Ecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/mec.14350.

Diaz-Ferguson, E. E., G. R. Moyer, E. E. Díaz-ferguson, and G. R. Moyer. 2014. History, applications, methodological issues and perspectives for the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) in marine and freshwater environments. Revista De Biologia Tropical 62:1273–1284.

Goldberg, C. S., C. R. Turner, K. Denier, K. E. Klymus, P. F. Thomsen, M. A. Murphy, S. F. Spear, A. McKee, S. J. Oyler-McCance, R. S. Cornman, M. S. Laramie, A. R. Mahon, R. F. Lance, D. S. Pilliod, K. M. Strickler, L. P. Waits, A. K. Fremier, T. Takahara, J. E. Herder, and P. Taberlet. 2016. Critical considerations for the application of environmental DNA methods to detect aquatic species. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7:1299-1307.

Kelly, R. P., J. A. Port, K. M. Yamahara, R. G. Martone, N. Lowell, P. F. Thomsen, M. E. Mach, M. Bennett, E. Prahler, M. R. Caldwell, and L. B. Crowder. 2014. Harnessing DNA to improve environmental management. Science 344:1455–1456.

Pedersen, M. W., S. S. Overballe-Petersen, L. Ermini, C. Der Sarkissian, J. Haile, M. Hellstrom, J. Spens, P. F. Thomsen, K. Bohmann, E. Cappellini, I. B. B. Schnell, N. a. Wales, C. Caroe, P. F. Campos, A. M. Z. Schmidt, M. T. P. Gilbert, A. J. Hansen, L. Orlando, E. Willerslev, C. Carøe, F. Campos, A. M. Z. Schmidt, M. T. P. Gilbert, A. J. Hansen, L. Orlando, and E. Willerslev. 2014. Ancient and modern environmental DNA. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 370:20130383–20130383.

Rees, H. C., B. C. Maddison, D. J. Middleditch, J. R. M. M. Patmore, and K. C. Gough. 2014. The detection of aquatic animal species using environmental DNA – a review of eDNA as a survey tool in ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology 51:1450–1459.

Shaw, J. L. A., L. Weyrich, and A. Cooper. 2016. Using environmental (e)DNA sequencing for aquatic biodiversity surveys: a beginner’s guide. Marine and Freshwater Research 68:20-33.

Taberlet, P., A. Bonin, L. Zinger, and E. Coissac. 2018. Environmental DNA: for biodiversity research and monitoring. Oxford University Press

Thomsen, P. F., and E. Willerslev. 2015. Environmental DNA – An emerging tool in conservation for monitoring past and present biodiversity. Biological Conservation 183:4–18.

Valentini, A., P. Taberlet, C. Miaud, R. Civade, J. Herder, P. F. Thomsen, E. Bellemain, A. Besnard, E. Coissac, F. Boyer, C. Gaboriaud, P. Jean, N. Poulet, N. Roset, G. H. Copp, P. Geniez, D. Pont, C. Argillier, J.-M. Baudoin, T. Peroux, A. J. Crivelli, A. Olivier, M. Acqueberge, M. Le Brun, P. R. Møller, E. Willerslev, and T. Dejean. 2016. Next-generation monitoring of aquatic biodiversity using environmental DNA metabarcoding. Molecular Ecology 25:929–942.


Foundational (pre-2013) eDNA References

Dejean, T., A. Valentini, C. Miquel, P. Taberlet, E. Bellemain, and C. Miaud. 2012. Improved detection of an alien invasive species through environmental DNA barcoding: The example of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:953–959.

Dejean, T., A. Valentini, C. Miquel, P. Taberlet, E. Bellemain, and C. Miaud. 2012. Improved detection of an alien invasive species through environmental DNA barcoding: The example of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:953–959.

Ficetola, G. F., C. Miaud, F. Pompanon, and P. Taberlet. 2008. Species detection using environmental DNA from water samples. Biology Letters 4:423–425.

Foote, A. D., P. F. Thomsen, S. Sveegaard, M. Wahlberg, J. Kielgast, L. A. Kyhn, A. B. Salling, A. Galatius, L. Orlando, and M. T. P. Gilbert. 2012. Investigating the Potential Use of Environmental DNA (eDNA) for Genetic Monitoring of Marine Mammals. PLoS ONE 7:2–7.

Goldberg, C. S., D. S. Pilliod, R. S. Arkle, and L. P. Waits. 2011. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: A demonstration using rocky mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders. PLoS ONE 6:e22746.

Jerde, C. L., A. R. Mahon, W. L. Chadderton, and D. M. Lodge. 2011. “Sight-unseen” detection of rare aquatic species using environmental DNA. Conservation Letters 4:150–157.

Martellini, A., P. Payment, and R. Villemur. 2005. Use of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA to differentiate human, bovine, porcine and ovine sources in fecally contaminated surface water. Water Research 39:541–548.

Minamoto, T., H. Yamanaka, T. Takahara, M. N. Honjo, and Z. Kawabata. 2012. Surveillance of fish species composition using environmental DNA. Limnology 13:193–197.

Thomsen, P. F., J. Kielgast, L. L. Iversen, P. R. Møller, M. Rasmussen, and E. Willerslev. 2012. Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples. PLoS ONE 7:1–9.

Thomsen, P. F., J. Kielgast, L. L. Iversen, C. Wiuf, M. Rasmussen, M. T. P. Gilbert, L. Orlando, and E. Willerslev. 2012. Monitoring endangered freshwater biodiversity using environmental DNA. Molecular Ecology 21:2565–73.


Current Reference List (updated May 2019):

Adams, C. I. M., M. Knapp, N. J. Gemmell, G.-J. Jeunen, M. Bunce, M. D. Lamare, and H. R. Taylor. 2019b. Beyond Biodiversity: Can Environmental DNA (eDNA) Cut It as a Population Genetics Tool? Genes 10:192.

Adams, C., L. Hoekstra, M. Muell, F. Janzen, C. I. M. Adams, L. A. Hoekstra, M. R. Muell, and F. J. Janzen. 2019a. A Brief Review of Non-Avian Reptile Environmental DNA (eDNA), with a Case Study of Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta) eDNA Under Field Conditions. Diversity 11:50.

Adamson, E. A. S., and D. A. Hurwood. 2015. Molecular ecology and stock identification. Pages 811–829Freshwater Fisheries Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.

Adrian-Kalchhauser, I., and P. Burkhardt-Holm. 2016. An eDNA assay to monitor a globally invasive fish species from flowing freshwater. PLoS ONE 11:e0147558.

Agersnap, S., W. B. Larsen, S. W. Knudsen, D. Strand, P. F. Thomsen, M. Hesselsøe, P. B. Mortensen, T. Vrålstad, and P. R. Møller. 2017. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples. PLoS ONE 12:e0179261.

Aizu, M., S. Seino, T. Sado, and M. Miya. (n.d.). Environmental DNA metabarcoding with MiFish primer reveals marine fish fauna of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki for establishing a marine protected area.

Akre, T. S., L. D. Parker, E. Ruther, J. E. Maldonado, L. Lemmon, and N. R. McInerney. 2019. Concurrent visual encounter sampling validates eDNA selectivity and sensitivity for the endangered wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta). PLOS ONE 14:e0215586.

Alison A. Coulter, D. K., J. J. Amberg‡, E. J. B. A. Reuben, and R. Goforth. 2013. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 58:1029–1037.

Amberg, J. J., C. M. Merkes, W. Stott, C. B. Rees, and R. A. Erickson. 2019. Environmental DNA as a tool to help inform zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, management in inland lakes. Management of Biological Invasions 10.

Amberg, J. J., S. A. Bonar, C. Perez, C. B. Rees, C. Jackson, and R. M. Ulibarri. 2018. The Importance of Sound Methodology in Environmental DNA Sampling: Response to Comment. North American Journal of Fisheries Management.

Amberg, J. J., S. Grace McCalla, E. Monroe, R. Lance, K. Baerwaldt, and M. P. Gaikowski. 2015. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp. Journal of Great Lakes Research 41:367–373.

Andrews, K. R., M. De Barba, M. A. Russello, and L. P. Waits. 2018. Advances in Using Non-invasive, Archival, and Environmental Samples for Population Genomic Studies. Pages 1–37 Population Genomics. Springer, Cham.

Andruszkiewicz, E. A., H. A. Starks, F. P. Chavez, L. M. Sassoubre, B. A. Block, and A. B. Boehm. 2017. Biomonitoring of marine vertebrates in Monterey Bay using eDNA metabarcoding. PLoS ONE 12:e0176343.

Andruszkiewicz, E. A., L. M. Sassoubre, A. B. Boehm, D. Lodge, G. Lamberti, E. Willerslev, and A. Mahon. 2017. Persistence of marine fish environmental DNA and the influence of sunlight. PLoS ONE 12:e0185043.

Antognazza, C. M., J. R. Britton, C. Potter, E. Franklin, E. A. Hardouin, C. Gutmann Roberts, M. Aprahamian, and D. Andreou. 2019. Environmental DNA as a non-invasive sampling tool to detect the spawning distribution of European anadromous shads ( Alosa  spp.). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29:148–152.

Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, L., A. Cordonier, F. Straub, J. Iseli, P. Esling, and J. Pawlowski. 2017. Taxonomy-free molecular diatom index for high-throughput eDNA biomonitoring. Molecular Ecology Resources.

Ardura, A. 2019. Species-specific markers for early detection of marine invertebrate invaders through eDNA methods: Gaps and priorities in GenBank as database example. Journal for Nature Conservation 47:51–57.

Ardura, A., A. Zaiko, J. L. Martinez, A. Samuiloviene, Y. Borrell, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2015. Environmental DNA evidence of transfer of North Sea molluscs across tropical waters through ballast water. Journal of Molluscan Studies 81:495–501.

Ardura, A., A. Zaiko, J. L. Martinez, A. Samulioviene, A. Semenova, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2015. eDNA and specific primers for early detection of invasive species – A case study on the bivalve Rangia cuneata, currently spreading in Europe. Marine Environmental Research 112:48–55.

Ardura, A., A. Zaiko, Y. J. Borrell, A. Samuiloviene, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2017. Novel tools for early detection of a global aquatic invasive, the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 27:165–176.

Armstrong, J. B., D. E. Schindler, C. P. Ruff, G. T. Brooks, K. E. Bentley, and C. E. Torgersen. 2013. Diel horizontal migration in streams: Juvenile fish exploit spatial heterogeneity in thermal and trophic resources. Ecology 94:2066–2075.

Atkinson, S. S., J. E. L. Carlsson, B. Ball, M. Kelly-Quinn, and J. Carlsson. 2019. Field application of an eDNA assay for the threatened white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. bioRxiv:562710.

Atkinson, S., J. E. L. Carlsson, B. Ball, D. Egan, M. Kelly-Quinn, K. Whelan, and J. Carlsson. 2017. A quantitative PCR based environmental DNA assay for detecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). bioRxiv.

Auer, S. K., R. D. Bassar, K. Salin, and N. B. Metcalfe. 2016. Repeatability of metabolic rate is lower for animals living under field versus laboratory conditions. The Journal of Experimental Biology 219:631–634.

Aylward, M. L., A. P. Sullivan, G. H. Perry, S. E. Johnson, and E. E. Louis. 2018. An environmental DNA sampling method for aye-ayes from their feeding traces. Ecology and Evolution 8:9229–9240.

Baker, C. S., D. Steel, S. Nieukirk, and H. Klinck. 2018. Environmental DNA (eDNA) From the Wake of the Whales: Droplet Digital PCR for Detection and Species Identification. Frontiers in Marine Science 5:133.

Balasingham, K. 2016. Environmental DNA detection as an effective tool for delimiting spatial distribution of rare and invasive species, and assessing community in flowing, freshwater ecosystems. Electronic Theses and Dissertations.

Balasingham, K. D., R. P. Walter, and D. D. Heath. 2016. Residual eDNA detection sensitivity assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in a river ecosystem. Molecular Ecology Resources 17:523-532.

Balasingham, K. D., R. P. Walter, N. E. Mandrak, and D. D. Heath. 2017. Environmental DNA detection of rare and invasive fish species in two Great Lakes tributaries. Molecular Ecology 27:112-127.

Baldigo, B. P., L. A. Sporn, S. D. George, and J. A. Ball. 2017. Efficacy of Environmental DNA to Detect and Quantify Brook Trout Populations in Headwater Streams of the Adirondack Mountains, New York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 146:99–111.

Bálint, M., C. Nowak, O. Márton, S. U. Pauls, C. Wittwer, J. L. Aramayo, A. Schulze, T. Chambert, B. Cocchiararo, and M. Jansen. 2018. Accuracy, limitations and cost efficiency of eDNA-based community survey in tropical frogs. Molecular Ecology Resources 18:1415–1426.

Ballard, W. G. 2016. Fish biodiversity assessment of Abrams Creek, Tennessee. UGA.

Banks, J. C., N. J. Demetras, I. D. Hogg, M. A. Knox, and D. W. West. 2016. Monitoring brown trout (Salmo trutta) eradication in a wildlife sanctuary using environmental DNA 41:1–13.

Barnes, M. A., and C. R. Turner. 2015. The ecology of environmental DNA and implications for conservation genetics. Conservation Genetics 17:1–17.

Barnes, M. A., C. R. Turner, C. L. Jerde, M. A. Renshaw, W. L. Chadderton, and D. M. Lodge. 2014. Environmental Conditions Influence eDNA Persistence in Aquatic Systems. Environmental Science & Technology 48:1819–1827.

Bastos Gomes, G., K. S. Hutson, J. A. Domingos, C. Chung, S. Hayward, T. L. Miller, and D. R. Jerry. 2017. Use of environmental DNA (eDNA) and water quality data to predict protozoan parasites outbreaks in fish farms. Aquaculture 479:467–473.

Bastos Gomes, G., K. S. Hutson, J. A. Domingos, S. Infante Villamil, R. Huerlimann, T. L. Miller, and D. R. Jerry. 2019. Parasitic protozoan interactions with bacterial microbiome in a tropical fish farm. Aquaculture 502:196–201.

Bellemain, E., P. Harmony, G. Thomas, G. Francois, A. Valentini, M. Claude, and T. Dejean. 2016. Trails of river monsters: Detecting critically endangered Mekong giant catfish Pangasianodon gigas using environmental DNA. Global Ecology and Conservation 7:148–156.

Bergman, P. P. S., G. Schumer, S. Blankenship, and E. Campbell. 2016. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis. PLoS ONE 11:e0153500.

Berry, T. E., B. J. Saunders, M. L. Coghlan, M. Stat, S. Jarman, A. J. Richardson, C. H. Davies, O. Berry, E. S. Harvey, and M. Bunce. 2019. Marine environmental DNA biomonitoring reveals seasonal patterns in biodiversity and identifies ecosystem responses to anomalous climatic events. PLOS Genetics 15:e1007943.

Biggs, J., N. Ewald, A. Valentini, C. Gaboriaud, T. Dejean, R. A. Griffiths, J. Foster, J. W. Wilkinson, A. Arnell, P. Brotherton, P. Williams, and F. Dunn. 2015. Using eDNA to develop a national citizen science-based monitoring programme for the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus). Biological Conservation 183:19–28.

Bista, I., G. R. Carvalho, K. Walsh, M. Seymour, M. Hajibabaei, D. Lallias, M. Christmas, and S. Creer. 2017. Annual time-series analysis of aqueous eDNA reveals ecologically relevant dynamics of lake ecosystem biodiversity. Nature Communications 8:14087.

Blackman, R. C., D. Constable, C. Hahn, A. M. Sheard, J. Durkota, B. Hänfling, L. L. Handley, and M. Grabowski. 2017. Detection of a new non-native freshwater species by DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples—first record of Gammarus fossarum in the UK. Aquatic Invasions 12.

Bohmann, K., A. Evans, M. T. P. Gilbert, G. R. Carvalho, S. Creer, M. Knapp, D. W. Yu, and M. de Bruyn. 2014. Erratum: Environmental DNA for wildlife biology and biodiversity monitoring. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 29:485.

Bohmann, K., A. Evans, M. T. P. Gilbert, G. R. Carvalho, S. Creer, M. Knapp, D. W. Yu, and M. de Bruyn. 2014. Environmental DNA for wildlife biology and biodiversity monitoring. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29:358–367.

Boonstra, R. 2013. Reality as the leading cause of stress: rethinking the impact of chronic stress in nature. Functional Ecology 27:11–23.

Boothroyd, M. M., N. E. Mandrak, M. Fox, and C. C. Wilson. 2015. Environmental DNA detection and habitat occupancy of threatened spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). GENOME 58:198.

Borrell, Y. J., L. Miralles, A. Mártinez-Marqués, A. Semeraro, A. Arias, C. E. Carleos, and E. García-Vázquez. 2017. Metabarcoding and post-sampling strategies to discover non-indigenous species: A case study in the estuaries of the central south Bay of Biscay. Journal for Nature Conservation.

Borrell, Y. J., L. Miralles, H. Do Huu, K. Mohammed-Geba, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2017. DNA in a bottle—Rapid metabarcoding survey for early alerts of invasive species in ports. PLoS ONE 12:e0183347.

Bourne, S. D., J. Hudson, L. E. Holman, and M. Rius. 2018. Marine Invasion Genomics: Revealing Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Biological Invasions. Pages 1–36 Population Genomics. Springer, Cham.

Boussarie, G., J. Bakker, O. S. Wangensteen, S. Mariani, L. Bonnin, J.-B. Juhel, J. J. Kiszka, M. Kulbicki, S. Manel, W. D. Robbins, L. Vigliola, and D. Mouillot. 2018. Environmental DNA illuminates the dark diversity of sharks. Science Advances 4:eaap9661.

Bozinovic, F., and H.-O. Pörtner. 2015. Physiological ecology meets climate change. Ecology and Evolution 5:1025–1030.

Bracken, F. S. A., S. M. Rooney, M. Kelly-Quinn, J. J. King, and J. Carlsson. 2019. Identifying spawning sites and other critical habitat in lotic systems using eDNA “snapshots”: A case study using the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. Ecology and Evolution 9:553–567.

Brandl, S., G. Schumer, B. M. Schreier, J. L. Conrad, B. May, and M. R. Baerwald. 2015. Ten real-time PCR assays for detection of fish predation at the community level in the San Francisco Estuary–Delta. Molecular Ecology Resources 15:278–284.

Brown, E. A., F. J. J. Chain, A. Zhan, H. J. MacIsaac, and M. E. Cristescu. 2016. Early detection of aquatic invaders using metabarcoding reveals a high number of non-indigenous species in Canadian ports. Diversity and Distributions.

Brozio, S., C. Manson, E. Gourevitch, T. J. Burns, M. S. Greener, J. R. Downie, and P. A. Hoskisson. 2017. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliad Phytotelmata. PLoS ONE 12:e0170619.

Bushnell, P. G., and R. W. Brill. 1992. Oxygen transport and cardiovascular responses in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) exposed to acute hypoxia. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 162:131–143.

Buxton, A. S., J. J. Groombridge, and R. A. Griffiths. 2017. Is the detection of aquatic environmental DNA influenced by substrate type? PLOS ONE 12:e0183371.

Buxton, A. S., J. J. Groombridge, and R. A. Griffiths. 2018. Seasonal variation in environmental DNA detection in sediment and water samples. PLOS ONE 13:e0191737.

Buxton, A. S., J. J. Groombridge, N. B. Zakaria, and R. A. Griffiths. 2017. Seasonal variation in environmental DNA in relation to population size and environmental factors. Scientific Reports 7:46294.

Buxton, A., J. Groombridge, and R. Griffiths. 2018. Comparison of Two Citizen Scientist Methods for Collecting Pond Water Samples for Environmental DNA Studies. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice 3.

Bylemans, J., D. M. Gleeson, C. M. Hardy, and E. Furlan. 2018b. Toward an ecoregion scale evaluation of eDNA metabarcoding primers: A case study for the freshwater fish biodiversity of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia). Ecology and Evolution 8:8697–8712.

Bylemans, J., E. M. Furlan, C. M. Hardy, P. McGuffie, M. Lintermans, and D. M. Gleeson. 2017. An environmental DNA-based method for monitoring spawning activity: a case study, using the endangered Macquarie perch ( Macquaria australasica ). Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8:646–655.

Bylemans, J., E. M. Furlan, C. M. Hardy, P. McGuffie, M. Lintermans, and D. M. Gleeson. 2016. An environmental DNA (eDNA) based method for monitoring spawning activity: a case study using the endangered Macquarie perch ( Macquaria australasica ). Methods in Ecology and Evolution.

Bylemans, J., E. M. Furlan, D. M. Gleeson, C. M. Hardy, and R. P. Duncan. 2018a. Does Size Matter? An Experimental Evaluation of the Relative Abundance and Decay Rates of Aquatic Environmental DNA. Environmental Science & Technology 52:6408–6416.

Bylemans, J., E. M. Furlan, L. Pearce, T. Daly, and D. M. Gleeson. 2016. Improving the containment of a freshwater invader using environmental DNA (eDNA) based monitoring. Biological Invasions:1–9.

Cai, W., Z. Ma, C. Yang, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Zhao, Y. Geng, and D. W. Yu. 2017. Using eDNA to detect the distribution and density of invasive crayfish in the Honghe-Hani rice terrace World Heritage site. PLoS ONE 12:e0177724.

Cannon, M. V, J. Hester, A. Shalkhauser, E. R. Chan, K. Logue, S. T. Small, and D. Serre. 2016. In silico assessment of primers for eDNA studies using PrimerTree and application to characterize the biodiversity surrounding the Cuyahoga River. Scientific reports 6:22908.

Cantera, I., K. Cilleros, A. Valentini, A. Cerdan, T. Dejean, A. Iribar, P. Taberlet, R. Vigouroux, and S. Brosse. 2019. Optimizing environmental DNA sampling effort for fish inventories in tropical streams and rivers. Scientific Reports 9:3085.

Capo, E., D. Debroas, F. Arnaud, and I. Domaizon. 2015. Is Planktonic Diversity Well Recorded in Sedimentary DNA? Toward the Reconstruction of Past Protistan Diversity. Microbial Ecology 70:865–875.

Carim, K. J., J. C. Dysthe, M. K. Young, K. S. McKelvey, and M. K. Schwartz. 2017. A Noninvasive Tool to Assess the Distribution of Pacific Lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River Basin. PLoS ONE 12:e0169334.

Carim, K. J., J. C. S. Dysthe, M. K. Young, K. S. McKelvey, and M. K. Schwartz. 2016. An environmental DNA assay for detecting Arctic grayling in the upper Missouri River basin, North America. Conservation Genetics Resources 8:197–199.

Carim, K. J., K. R. Christianson, K. M. McKelvey, W. M. Pate, D. B. Silver, B. M. Johnson, B. T. Galloway, M. K. Young, M. K. Schwartz. 2016. Environmental DNA Marker Development with Sparse Biological Information: A Case Study on Opossum Shrimp (Mysis diluviana). PLoS ONE 11:e0161664.

Carim, K. J., T. M. Wilcox, M. Anderson, D. J. Lawrence, M. K. Young, K. S. McKelvey, and M. K. Schwartz. 2016. An environmental DNA marker for detecting nonnative brown trout (Salmo trutta). Conservation Genetics Resources 8:259–261.

Carim, K., T. Padgett-Stewart, T. Wilcox, M. Young, K. McKelvey, and M. Schwartz. 2015. Protocol for collecting eDNA samples from streams (v. 2.3). U.S.D.A. Forest Service, National Genomics Center for Wildlife and Fish Conservation V2.3:1–11.

Carney, S. L., E. E. Bolen, S. L. Barton, K. M. Scolardi, C. C. Englund, M. D. Tringali, and J. E. Reynolds. 2007. A minimally invasive method of field sampling for genetic analyses of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Marine Mammal Science 23:967–975.

Carraro, L., E. Bertuzzo, L. Mari, I. Es Fontes, H. Hartikainen, N. Strepparava, H. Schmidt-Posthaus, T. Wahli, J. Jokela, M. Gatto, A. Rinaldo, J. Bartholomew, and R. A. Norman. 2017. Integrated field, laboratory, and theoretical study of PKD spread in a Swiss prealpine river. PNAS 114:11992-11997.

Carraro, L., H. Hartikainen, J. Jokela, E. Bertuzzo, and A. Rinaldo. 2018. Estimating species distribution and abundance in river networks using environmental DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America:201813843.

Cerco, C. F., M. T. Schultz, M. R. Noel, B. Skahill, and S.-C. Kim. 2018. A fate and transport model for Asian carp environmental DNA in the Chicago area waterways system. Journal of Great Lakes Research.

Chain, F. J. J., E. A. Brown, H. J. MacIsaac, and M. E. Cristescu. 2016. Metabarcoding reveals strong spatial structure and temporal turnover of zooplankton communities among marine and freshwater ports. Diversity and Distributions 22:493–504.

Chambert, T., D. S. Pilliod, C. S. Goldberg, H. Doi, and T. Takahara. 2018. An analytical framework for estimating aquatic species density from environmental DNA. Ecology and Evolution.

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